In this project we develop, integrate, and further refine several statistical methods and assessment designs intended to improve cross-cultural comparability and the local usefulness of scale score estimates, including achievement and correlates, such as motivation, socioeconomic status, and well-being. A secondary objective of the project will be to create freely available software that will produce simulated complex assessment data. This product will allow educational researchers to replicate our findings and to conduct independent basic methodological research on complex educational testing methods and conditions.